In the last few decades, the field of Urological Oncology / urological cancers has seen significant advancements with the introduction of laparoscopy, minimally invasive techniques, and robot-assisted procedures. Furthermore, newer and advanced Oncological products such as chemotherapy, targeted therapies, and immunological modulators have been included, which have increased the survival rate and mitigated the side effects of chemotherapy. Urology’s cancer care has four main strategies: preventive, treatment-guided, metastatic, and palliative therapies. In the last two decades, all treatment strategies have experienced a steady breakthrough in Urology.

Q: What are some risk factors associated with urological cancers?
A: Some common risk factors for urological cancers include age, gender (males have a higher risk), family history of urological cancer, inherited gene mutations, smoking, obesity, excessive alcohol consumption, multiple sex partners, chronic infections, and chronic kidney disease.

Q: What are the chances of having cancer if blood is found in urine?
A: While non-cancerous diseases are more commonly the cause of blood in urine, a detailed evaluation is required to come to a conclusion. Tests including urine examination, history and physical examination, and a contrast-enhanced CT may be required to detect the elusive disease. Blood in urine may be due to tumors of the kidney, cancer of the ureter, cancer of the bladder, or cancer of the prostate.

Q: What are some common symptoms of urological cancers?
A: Common symptoms of urological cancers include blood in the urine, changes in urination, pelvic pain, testicular swelling, unexplained weight loss, fatigue, lower back pain, lumps or swelling, erectile dysfunction, altered bowel habits, and frequent infections.

Q: What is bladder cancer?
A: Bladder cancer, also known as urothelial carcinoma, begins when the cells in the lining of the bladder start to grow out of control. It may also occur anywhere in the urethra, renal pelvis, and ureters.

Q: What are the symptoms of bladder cancer?
A: The most common symptom of bladder cancer is blood in the urine. Other symptoms include irritation when urinating, urgency, and frequency of urination, which are also common symptoms of a urinary tract infection.

Q: Who is at risk for bladder cancer?
A: Smoking has been found to be the greatest risk factor for bladder cancer. Other risk factors include exposure to carcinogens in the environment. Workers in the rubber, chemical, and leather industries are at risk, as are hairdressers, machinists, metal workers, painters, textile workers, and firefighters.

Q: How is bladder cancer diagnosed?
A: Doctors can use many tests, including ultrasounds, CT scans, and MRI scans to detect irregularities in the bladder wall, which would suggest a possible cancer. The urologist will also perform a cystoscopy to visually examine the bladder and may remove samples of any suspicious areas for biopsy. Urine cytology can be performed to detect cancer cells in urine. Other tests use urine-based markers to detect cells or substances in a urine sample that are relatively specific to bladder cancer.

Q: Are urological cancers treatable?
A: Yes, urological cancers are often treatable, especially when diagnosed early. The treatment approach depends on the type of cancer, its stage, and individual factors such as overall health and patient preferences.

Q: What is the difference between urology and oncology?
A: Urology is a medical discipline that diagnoses and treats disorders of the urinary and male reproductive systems. Oncology is the medical discipline that focuses on preventing, diagnosing, and treating cancer.

Q: What does a urologic oncologist do?
A: A urologic oncologist specializes in diagnosing, treating, and managing urological cancers. Their expertise lies at the intersection of urology and oncology.

Q: When should I see a uro-oncologist?
A: You may consider visiting a uro-oncologist for a variety of reasons, such as to diagnose urological cancer, abnormal test results, family history of urological cancers, seeking a second opinion, managing ongoing treatment, or occurrence of moderate to severe side effects of the current treatment.

Q: What can I expect when I visit a uro-oncology specialist?
A: When you visit a uro-oncology specialist for the first time, you can expect a comprehensive evaluation and discussion about your medical history, symptoms, and any relevant diagnostic tests.

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